Wednesday, November 23, 2016

HOWTO : EveBox on Almond Croissants and Danish

EveBox is a web based Suricata "eve" event viewer for ElasticSearch. ElasticSearch is installed on Almond Croissants or Danish by default. However, EveBox is not installed by default. You need to install it yourself.

Almond Croissants is an Intrusion Detection and Prevention System while Danish is an Intrusion Detection System. Almond Croissants and Danish are created based on Suricata by Samiux under GPL version 3.

In general speaking, EveBox is for advanced Almond Croissants or Danish users.

Step 1a :

wget https://github.com/jasonish/evebox/releases/download/0.5.0/evebox-0.5.0-linux-amd64.zip
unzip evebox-0.5.0-linux-amd64.zip
sudo cp evebox-0.5.0-linux-amd64/evebox /usr/bin/


OR

Step 1b :

wget https://bintray.com/jasonish/evebox-development/download_file?file_path=evebox-latest-linux-amd64.zip -O evebox-latest-linux-amd64.zip
unzip evebox-latest-linux-amd64.zip
sudo cp evebox-0.6.0dev-linux-amd64/evebox /usr/bin/


Step 2 :

sudo nano /lib/systemd/system/evebox.service

[Unit]
Description=EveBox Web Interface
Wants=network-online.target
After=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/bin/evebox -e http://localhost:9200
Restart=always

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


Step 3 :

sudo systemctl enable evebox.service
sudo systemctl start evebox.service


To access it, use your browser to surf :

http://[Almond Croissants IP address]:5636

Update or Upgrade

sudo systemctl stop evebox.service

Repeat Step 1a or 1b.

sudo systemctl start evebox.service

That's all! See you.


Sunday, November 13, 2016

[Review] MIUI 8



To more understand the features of MIUI 8, you need to watch this video.

That's all! See you.


Wednesday, November 09, 2016

[Review] Xiaomi Redmi Note 4



Briefed Specifications

CPU : MTK Helio X20 2.1GHz (10-core)
RAM : 3GB
Storage : 64GB
GPU : Mali T880 MP4 700MHz
Display : 5.5 inches
Resolution : 1080x1920 pixels
Case : Metal
Battery : 4100mAh
Mobile : 4G/LTE (dual SIM or SIM with microSD)
OS : Android 6.0
NFC : Nil

Xiaomi Redmi Note 4 is a China brand Android smartphone which is released in October 2016. It's user interface is MIUI 8. Redmi Note 4 has the following outstanding features :

(A) Anti-Virus

It is pre-installed with anti-virus apps and you can choose either "AVL" or "Tencent" definitions. Meanwhile, you can choose both of them too. If you enabled "Scan before installing", all apps will be scanned before installing. The virus definitions will be updated automatically.

(B) Backup and Restore

By default, "Mi Account" is not enabled. You need to register an account. When you registered, your phone will be fully backup to "Mi Cloud" automatically. Meanwhile, you can restore from "Mi Cloud" when necessary.

(C) Featured tools

Some tools are pre-installed, such as real "FM Radio", barcode "Scanner", audio "Recorder", "Compass" which are grouped at "Tools" icon. Furthermore, "Mi Remote" which is an IR remote controller for TV or similar. "Mi Remote" is grouped at "More Apps" icon. In addition, "Mi Mover" which is situated at "Settings" >> "Additional settings" can move apps and data from old phone (Xiaomi for sure) to new Xiaomi phone.

(D) Blacklist

You are not required 3rd party blocker for the telephone and SMS as it is pre-installed and it is situated at "Security" icon. It can block by telephone number, telephone number prefix or contacts.

(E) Quick ball

A quick access and customizable button on the screen (you can move it anywhere on the screen). It is disabled by default. You can enable it by "Settings" >> "Additional settings" >> "Quick ball". Once it is enabled, the default "Quick ball" has "Home", "Menu", "Lock", "Screenshot" and "Back". You can customize it at your will.

(F) Other features

It has some other features, such as "Lite mode" for elderly, "Second Space" for one phone with two different settings. It likes that you have two devices on one phone. "Second Space" is situated at "Settings". You can unlock the phone with your fingerprint. In addition, it can clear the cache when the phone is locked for a certain time, such as 30 minutes by default for battery saving.

(G) Special features

You need to use default "Clock" apps instead of installing Google's one. Otherwise, the alarm will not activate automatically.

Since it will kill apps for a certain time (3 days by default) in order to free up the memory, some apps that sending notification to other device (such as sports watch) via bluetooth will be dropped after the auto-clean. Meanwhile, when your phone is locked for 30 minutes (default), the battery saving function will clear the cache. However, it will also kill the running apps that sending notifications. Therefore, you need to configure it as at here manually. By the way, it does not come with NFC.

(H) MIUI 8 Review In-Depth

The review of MIUI 8 is here

That's all! See you.


Monday, November 07, 2016

HOWTO : Redmi Note 4 with Garmin fenix 3 HR Notification



Redmi Note 4 is new released China brand Android smartphone. Since MIUI 8 user-interface will kill the Apps in the memory in a certain time (such as 3 days by default), your Garmin fenix 3 HR will not receive any notification (such as Telegram or Whatsapp) via Redmi Note 4 after the auto clean up.

However, this default settings can be changed and the notifications will working.

Option 1 (Stupid way) :

(1) Security icon >> Settings >> Cleaner >> Clean automatically >> Items to clean

Disable "Cache", "Packages" and "Residuals".

(2) Security icon >> Settings >> Scan app memory

Disable.

(3) Security icon >> Settings >> Battery usage >> Clear cache when device is locked

Set to "Never".

(4) Security icon >> Permissions >> Autostart

Enable "Connect", "Telegram" or "Whatsapp", "Voice Caller ID".

(5) Connect icon >> Settings >> Smart Notifications

Add and enable "Telegram" and/or "Whatsapp".

(6) Settings icon >> Bluetooth

Make sure fenix 3 HR is paired with the phone and bluetooth is enabled.


Option 2 (Smart Way) :

(A) Tap on the "Menu" key at the left bottom corner on the phone. Some running apps screens will be displayed. Swipe down the app screens (such as "Connect", "Telegram", "Whatsapp", "Voice Caller ID") and select "Lock" to prevent the apps from being killed by "Cleaning" feature. The "locked" apps will be running in the background unless you unlock it.

(B) Connect icon >> Settings >> Smart Notifications

Add and enable "Telegram" and/or "Whatsapp".

(C) Settings icon >> Bluetooth

You may also need to do the following for some apps :

(D) Security icon >> Permissions >> Autostart

Enable "Connect", "Telegram" or "Whatsapp", "Voice Caller ID".

Make sure fenix 3 HR is paired with the phone and bluetooth is enabled.


That's all! See you.


Monday, October 10, 2016

[RESEARCH] Cloudflare Can Be Bypassed

About two years ago, CEO of Cloudflare (cloud based Content Delivery Network, CDN) visited Hong Kong to promote their services after an unofficial referendum site (hosted by anti-government party), which is protected by Cloudflare, is under DDoS attack with about 400GB traffic. From that day, Cloudflare is well known to all anti-government parties in Hong Kong. Most of their websites are then protected by it.

This cloud based CDN service provides DDoS protection and the real IP address of the websites are hidden by purpose. Cloudflare has free and paid plans. The paid plan is equipped with Web Application Firewall (WAF). However, this plan is not cheap, so some of the anti-government websites are not in the plan.

When you google the keyword "cloudflare bypass", it returns a lot of pages that are mentioning how to find out the real IP address of the websites that protected by Cloudflare. However, most websites are configured not to present their content properly when browsing it with IP address. Therefore, to find out the real IP address of the website is not the way to bypass Cloudflare unless you want to attack the web server instead of the web application. Meanwhile, to find out the real IP address of the web servers are not easy as it is hidden properly recently.

To pentest those sites, you cannot use Web Vulnerability Scanners, that without WAF evasion feature, as they will be blocked. WAF evasion features for the scanners are not common in the market. You need to pentest those sites manually. Once you find something interesting and suspect it is vulnerable to SQL injection, you need to confirm it with other SQLi takeover tools, such as SQLMap. No matter it is pentesting by manual or SQLMap, you need WAF evasion skill to complete.

Meanwhile, Wordpress is very famous in Hong Kong too. If the target is a Wordpress site, make sure you do not use WPScan to scan it as your IP address will be banned for sure. Once your IP address is banned, you are no way to do the pentesting.

I conduct a research for bypassing Cloudflare with SQLMap and it is successfully with WAF evasion technique. No matter it is free or paid plan, Cloudflare can be bypassed for sure. I am not working for Cloudflare and I do not want to get any bounty. Therefore, I am not going to share my detailed research here as it will alert Cloudflare to improve their WAF when it is disclosed. I am sure that some other researchers out there are already bypassed Cloudflare too. Meanwhile, other OWASP Top 10 and other cloud based WAFs are not tested in this research.

REFERENCE

(1) Cloudflare
(2) OWASP Top Ten Project


That's all! See you.


Thursday, September 22, 2016

HOWTO : Hardening Mobile Devices with Intrusion Prevention System

The internet security of mobile devices (such as smartphone, tablet and laptop) becomes very important today. How to secure them is a big problem. Since the cost of anti-virus per device is not cheap per month, most users installed free version of such apps (or programs). However, free version protects the devices on demand purpose only. When you have many mobile devices, you will push your hairs out to secure them. Meanwhile, anti-virus apps (or programs) are designed to prevent your devices from being infected by malware only. They cannot protect you from being attacked by web based attacks, such as Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and Phishing attacks.

Not all browsers can protect you from being attacked by XSS and phishing by default or by plugins. Most Unified Management Systems (UTM) (or namely Next Generation Firewall) are equipped with anti-virus, spam blocker, web filter, advertising blocker, firewall, intrusion prevention and phish blocker. However, not all UTMs have a good intrusion prevention system.

Not all Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) can detect XSS, Phishing, spam, virus, advertising and web filtering. If you have a UTM or IPS that have all the mentioned protection, you can secure your mobile devices by installing a VPN server, such as OpenVPN. Some UTMs have VPN but it does not allow users to connect to the internet from it.

Mobile devices connect to your network, which is hardening by UTM or IPS, via VPN. The mobile devices can surf the internet just like inside your network. As a result, the mobile devices are protected by the UTM or IPS as well.

Open Source project, Almond Croissants, is an Intrusion Prevention System that has all the captioned protection. However, it is not a silver bullet. As I always say, "The risk is not your system vulnerable, the risk is you think that your system is secured".

By the way, make sure you disable the sharing function on your mobile device if any.

REFERENCE

(1) Almond Croissants - Intrusion Detection and Prevention System
(2) How To Set Up an OpenVPN Server on Ubuntu 16.04

That's all! See you.


Saturday, September 10, 2016

Firefox 48.0 Does Not Vulnerable To Reverse Tabnabbing

What is Tabnabbing?

According to Wikipedia, Tabnabbing is a computer exploit and phishing attack, which persuades users to submit their login details and passwords to popular websites by impersonating those sites and convincing the user that the site is genuine.

The attack's name was coined in early 2010 by Aza Raskin, a security researcher and design expert. The attack takes advantage of user trust and inattention to detail in regard to tabs, and the ability of modern web pages to rewrite tabs and their contents a long time after the page is loaded.

Tabnabbing operates in reverse of most phishing attacks in that it doesn’t ask users to click on an obfuscated link but instead loads a fake page in one of the open tabs in your browser.

What's New?

Recently, security researcher(s) find a new attack vector. A lot of websites are coding their links with target="_blank" and attackers can use of this vulnerability to attack clients browser.

How to avoid from that?

If you are website administrators or developers, please correct all the code from :

target="_blank"

to :

target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"

If you are users/clients, you need to use a not vulnerability browser such as Firefox 34.0 or higher.

I tested Edge, Chrome, Safari and Firefox on Android, Linux, iOS, Windows and Mac OSX. I got the following result.

Vulnerable -
Safari for Mac OSX 9.1.3 (11601.7.8)
Safari for iOS (iPad) 9.3.5
Safari for iOS (iPhone) 9.3.5
Android Browser 42.0.2311.1179 (Default browser for OnePlus One 6.0.1)
Chrome for Mac OSX 53.0.2785.101
Chrome for Android 52.0.2743.98 (Default browser of Nexus 5 6.0.1)
Chrome for Android 53.0.2785.97
Chrome for iOS (iPad) 53.0.2785.86
Firefox for iOS (iPad) 5.2 (1)*

Not Vulnerable -
Firefox for Android 48.0
Firefox for Linux 48.0
Firefox ESR for Linux 45.3.0
Firefox for Mac OSX 48.0
Edge for Windows 25.10586.0.0

Please note that Google will not fix this "vulnerability" on Chrome, please see their explanation here.

*Another thing you may note that Firefox for iOS is also vulnerable. Meanwhile, Chrome for Linux is not tested.

How do I test my browsers?

Please go to Blankshield & Reverse Tabnabbing Attacks Demo Page. If you see the following message on the first line, your browser is not vulnerable. Otherwise, your browser is vulnerable to this attack.

"You are not using a vulnerable browser."

If your browser is vulnerable to this attack, the page should be looking like this.

Demo Video

Reference

(1) https://github.com/danielstjules/blankshield
(2) https://danielstjules.github.io/blankshield/
(3) http://news.softpedia.com/news/adding-target-blank-to-your-links-opens-the-door-for-phishing-attacks-507851.shtml
(4) https://sites.google.com/site/bughunteruniversity/nonvuln/phishing-with-window-opener
(5) http://davidebove.com/blog/2016/05/05/target_blank-the-vulnerability-in-your-browser/
(6) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabnabbing

That's why I love Firefox so much!

That's all! See you.

Friday, August 19, 2016

HOWTO : Oracle Ksplice on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Oracle Ksplice provides kernel updates on Ubuntu and Fedora Linux without reboots free of charge. Ksplice is working properly on Desktop and Server versions as it has graphic and command line interfaces.

This guide shows you how to install Ksplice on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Desktop or Server version)

Step 1 :

sudo apt-get install libgtk2-perl consolekit iproute libck-connector0 libcroco3 libglade2-0 libpam-ck-connector librsvg2-2 librsvg2-common python-cairo python-dbus python-gi python-glade2 python-gobject-2 python-gtk2 python-pycurl python-yaml dbus-x11

Step 2 :

wget https://ksplice.oracle.com/uptrack/dist/xenial/ksplice-uptrack.deb

sudo dpkg -i ksplice-uptrack.deb

Step 3 :

sudo nano /etc/uptrack/uptrack.conf

Change the following as is :

autoinstall = yes

Step 4 :

Usages on CLI :

sudo uptrack-upgrade -y

Reference

User Guide

That's all! See you.


Thursday, August 18, 2016

HOWTO : Hardening and Tuning Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

This guide will lead you to hardening and tuning your Ubuntu 16.04 in a few steps without any expense. As an Information Security Enthusiast, my Ubuntu box is setting up like the following and I use the box every day.

Kernel Hardening and Tuning

Make sure you enabled the "No Execute (NX)" or "Execute Disable (XD)" in the BIOS/UEFI.

sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf

To make it looks like the following :



To reload it :

sudo sysctl -p

ARP Spoofing

One of the common attacks is Man In The Middle attack. It can use with browser attack too. This guide will help to protect your Ubuntu from being spoofing. Meanwhile, make sure to set ARP related settings in your router if the feature is available. Most home routers have no such feature.

HOWTO : ArpON on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Anti-Malware

Most Linux users (including advanced users) misunderstand that Linux will never and impossible to infect with malware. However, it is not true. Almost all operating systems are facing to the threats.

HOWTO : ClamAV 0.99 on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

This guide will lead you to set up ClamAV for "Scan On Access" instead of "Scan On Demand".

Network Interface Tuning

sudo nano /etc/rc.local

Insert the following before "exit 0" :

/sbin/ifconfig eth0 txqueuelen 10000
/sbin/ifconfig wlan0 txqueuelen 10000


* make sure your NICs are "eth0" and "wlan0" or else

Storage Performance Tuning

(A) SSD

Verify TRIM is supported :

sudo hdparm -I /dev/sda | grep TRIM

If the output is similar to the below which is supported :

* Data Set Management TRIM supported (limit 1 block)

If you install your Ubuntu in LVM, the TRIM is usually enabled by default. You can confirm it :

cat /etc/lvm/lvm.conf | grep issue_discards

If the output is similar to the below which is enabled :

issue_discards = 1

Then set the following to "deadline" if it is not done yet.

cat /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler

noop [deadline] cfq

If not, set it :

sudo nano /etc/rc.local

Insert the following before "exit 0" :

echo 1024 > /sys/block/sda/queue/read_ahead_kb
echo 1024 > /sys/block/sda/queue/nr_requests
echo deadline > /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler


* make sure your device is sda (or sdb ...)

To reload it or reboot your system :

sudo /etc/rc.local

After that, you need to edit the partition table (/etc/fstab) :

To make it looks like the following :

/dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root / ext4 noatime,nodiratime,norelatime,errors=remount-ro 0 1

sudo mount -a
sudo mount -o remount /


If you have an error after running the captioned commands, DO NOT reboot your system. You should correct the typo before doing so; otherwise, you cannot boot to your system again.

You can add "scsi_mod.use_blk_mq=1" to kernel parameter, such as "/etc/default/grub".

(B) Hard Drive

sudo nano /etc/rc.local

Insert the following before "exit 0" :

echo 1024 > /sys/block/sda/queue/read_ahead_kb
echo 1024 > /sys/block/sda/queue/nr_requests


* make sure your device is sda (or sdb ...)

To reload it or reboot your system :

sudo /etc/rc.local

After that, you need to edit the partition table (/etc/fstab) :

To make it looks like the following :

ext4 noatime,nodiratime,norelatime,errors=remount-ro 0 1

sudo mount -a
sudo mount -o remount /


If you have an error after running the captioned commands, DO NOT reboot your system. You should correct the typo before doing so; otherwise, you cannot boot to your system again.

Firefox Hardening and Tuning

Most malicious attacks nowadays are via browsers. Therefore, we need to protect ourselves even we are using Linux.

(A) Apparmor For Firefox

AppArmor is a Linux Security Module implementation of name-based access controls.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install apparmor-utils apparmor-profiles


To make it looks like the following :



sudo rm /etc/apparmor.d/disable/usr.bin.firefox

Reload the rules :

sudo apparmor_parser -r /etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.firefox

(B) Firefox Add-ons

NoScript

Allow active content to run only from sites you trust, and protect yourself against XSS and Clickjacking attacks.

* You are not required to enable it as it will block the javascript that most modern websites are using. You need to disable it globally to make the XSS attack protection by default.

uBlock Origin (Optional)

Finally, an efficient blocker. Easy on CPU and memory. (Please refer to the official site for details)

WebRTC Control

Have control over WebRTC (disable or enable) and protect your IP address.

BetterPrivacy

Remove or manage a new and uncommon kind of cookies, better known as LSO's.The BetterPrivacy safeguard offers various ways to handle Flash-cookies set by Google, YouTube, Ebay and others...

HTTPS Everywhere

Encrypt the web! HTTPS Everywhere is a Firefox extension to protect your communications by enabling HTTPS encryption automatically on sites that are known to support it, even when you type URLs or follow links that omit the https: prefix.

Speed Tweaks (SpeedyFox)

This extension provides a list to almost all the settings that you may need to alter in order to enhance Firefox's speed.

(C) Optional

(1) Firefox Add-ons :

User-Agent Switcher

The User Agent Switcher extension adds a menu and a toolbar button to switch the user agent of a browser.

Youtube High Definition

YouTube High Definition is a powerful tool that will let you automatically play all YouTube videos in HD (High Definition), turn off annotations, change video player size, auto stop videos, auto mute videos, control embedded videos and much more.

Youtube Flash-Html5

Play YouTube Videos in Flash or HTML5 Player.

(2) Browse with "New Private Window" feature

Finally, you may consider to use Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) to protect your network. My project "Almond Croissants" which is an IDPS that can deploy to your network (in front or/and behind the router). Or, you may also consider to use TOR to protect your privacy with my project "NightHawk".

Reference

WebRTC IPS

IP Leak

That's all! See you.


HOWTO : ClamAV 0.99 on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Clam AntiVirus (ClamAV) is a free and open-source, cross-platform antivirus software tool-kit able to detect many types of malicious software, including viruses.

This guide will lead you to set up ClamAV for "Scan On Access" instead of "Scan On Demand". It is also target to Desktop usage only.

The current version at this writing is ClamAV 0.99.

Step 1 :

sudo apt-get install clamav clamav-freshclam clamav-daemon libclamunrar7

Step 2 :

sudo nano /etc/clamav/clamd.conf

To make the entries looking like the following. Make sure to replace "samiux" with your username.


cd ~
mkdir quarantine


Step 3 :

sudo nano /etc/clamav/freshclam.conf

To make the entries looking like the following.



sudo systemctl enable clamav-daemon
sudo systemctl restart clamav-daemon
sudo freshclam


Remark :

Download or copy will not trigger the ClamAV scan but browsing or executing (or etc) will. If any malware or virus (no matter it is for Windows, Linux or Mac OSX) is detected, it will be moved to "quarantine" directory. You can also check the log at "/var/log/clamav/clamav.log". Be aware that ClamAV may produce a lot of false positive warning in Linux.

Testing :

You can install NO harm virus testing files for testing.

sudo apt-get install clamav-testfiles

The NO harm virus testing files are located at "/usr/share/clamav-testfiles".

Reference

AppArmor Wiki

That's all! See you.


HOWTO : ArpON on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

ArpON (ARP handler inspection) is a portable handler daemon that make ARP protocol secure in order to avoid the Man In The Middle (MITM) attack through ARP Spoofing, ARP Cache Poisoning or ARP Poison Routing (APR) attacks. It blocks also the derived attacks by it, which Sniffing, Hijacking, Injection, Filtering & co attacks for more complex derived attacks, as: DNS Spoofing, WEB Spoofing, Session Hijacking and SSL/TLS Hijacking & co attacks.

Step 1 :

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install arpon


Step 2 :

sudo nano /etc/default/arpon

Uncomment the DARPI and RUN, makes sure it is looking as :

DAEMON_OPTS="-q -f /var/log/arpon/arpon.log -g -D"
RUN="yes"

Step 3 :

sudo systemctl enable arpon
sudo systemctl restart arpon


That's all! See you.


VirtualBox 5.0.x Headless with PHPVirtualBox 5.0.x

VirtualBox is a virtual machine which can be running on desktop and server. We can running VirtualBox as server (Headless mode) with PHPVirtualBox as front end. PHPVirutalBox can be running with Apache flawlessly. However, I would like it to be running on Hiawatha. There is no database required for the Headless mode.

Part A - Hardware

Motherboard : ASRock Rack C2750D4I server board
CPU : Intel Atom C2750
RAM : 4 x 8GB (32GB) DDR3-1600
Hard Drive : 2 x Western Digital 4TB WD4000F9YZ

Western Digital 4TB WD4000F9YZ is not certified by ASRock, so, it cannot boot from SATA3 ports. The SATA2 ports are used in this case.

The performance of C2750 is similar to Xeon E3-1220L. Please the comparison page at here.

The power consumption of this setup is between 30W to 80W.

Make sure you have enabled "Virtualization" (VT-x) in the BIOS.

Part B - Software

Operating System : Ubuntu Server 16.04.1 LTS
Virtual Machine : VirtualBox 5.0.30
Front End : PHPVirtualBox 5.0.5
Web Server : Hiawatha
RAID : Software RAID 1

Part C - Installation

Part C.1 - Operating System and Software RAID 1 Installation

RAID 1 requires two hard drivers for the installation. When you are installing Ubuntu Server 14.04.2 LTS, you are required to do the partitioning. Select "Automatically partitioning" for each drive. The partitions will be (1) 1MB for "biosgrub"; (2) Free Space for root directory; and (3) Free Space for SWAP.

Then select "Configure Software RAID" to configure the Software RAID 1 on Free Space for root directory and Free Space for SWAP partitions. Do not RAID the "biosgrub" partitions. Set the "Free Space for root directory" to be mount at "/" and use as "Ext4 jouraling file system". Set the "Free Space for SWAP" to be used as "SWAP".

Finally, you should select to install "OpenSSH" when asked.

After the installation, your box can be booted up as expected. You can check the status of Software RAID 1 by the following commands :

cat /proc/mdstat

mdadm --detail /dev/md0
mdadm --detail /dev/md1


Part C.2 - VirtualBox Installation

After the Ubuntu Server 16.04.1 LTS is installed, you can install VirtualBox on it.

sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list.d/vbox.list

Append the following line to it :

deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian xenial contrib

Save it.

wget -q https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox_2016.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dkms unzip
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-5.0


wget http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/5.0.30/Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-5.0.30-112061.vbox-extpack

sudo VBoxManage extpack install Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-5.0.30-112061.vbox-extpack

To uninstall Extension Pack :

sudo VBoxManage extpack uninstall "Oracle VM VirtualBox Extension Pack"

Part C.3 - Hiawatha Web Server Installation

sudo apt-get install php-common php7.0-cli php7.0-common php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-imap php7.0-intl php7.0-json php7.0-mbstring php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-mysql php7.0-readline php7.0-xml php7.0-zip php7.0-pgsql php7.0-sqlite3 php7.0-fpm php-apcu mysql-server mysql-client php7.0-cgi apache2-utils php7.0-soap

sudo apt-get install libc6-dev libssl-dev dpkg-dev debhelper fakeroot libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev

wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v3.6/cmake-3.6.2.tar.gz
tar -xvzf cmake-3.6.2.tar.gz
cd cmake-3.6.2
./configure
make
sudo make install


wget http://www.hiawatha-webserver.org/files/hiawatha-10.4.tar.gz
tar -xzvf hiawatha-10.4.tar.gz
cd hiawatha-10.4/extra
./make_debian_package
cd ..
sudo dpkg -i hiawatha_10.4_amd64.deb


sudo systemctl enable hiawatha

sudo nano /etc/php/7.0/fpm/php.ini

Make changes as is.

zlib.output_compression = On
zlib.output_compression_level = 6
cgi.rfc2616_headers = 1


Append the following to the php-fpm.conf.

sudo nano /etc/php/7.0/fpm/php-fpm.conf

[www]
user = www-data
group = www-data
listen.mode = 0666
listen = /var/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock
pm = static
pm.max_children = 100
chdir = /


sudo nano /etc/hiawatha/hiawatha.conf



sudo mkdir /etc/hiawatha/enable-sites
sudo mkdir /etc/hiawatha/disable-sites


sudo nano /etc/hiawatha/enable-sites/vbox.local



Make sure to change the "Hostname" to your IP address.

Part C.4 - PHPVirtualBox Installation

sudo adduser --ingroup vboxusers vbox

Enter password when prompted. Make sure you use a simple password as symbols do not accepted by VirtualBox.

wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/phpvirtualbox/phpvirtualbox-5.0-5.zip?r=https%3A%2F%2Fsourceforge.net%2Fprojects%2Fphpvirtualbox%2F&ts=1476606079&use_mirror=ncu" -O phpvirtualbox-5.0.5.zip
sudo unzip phpvirtualbox-5.0.5.zip -d /var/www/
sudo mv /var/www/phpvirtualbox-5.0.5/ /var/www/vbox
cd /var/www/vbox
sudo cp config.php-example config.php
sudo nano config.php


Change "$username" to "vbox" and "$password" to the password you just entered.

Change "$consoleHost" to your IP address, such as "192.168.1.120"

Uncoment (remove "#" in the front) "$enableAdvancedConfig = true;" and "$startStopConfig = true;"

sudo nano /etc/default/virtualbox

Append the following line to the empty file :

VBOXWEB_USER=vbox
VBOXWEB_HOST=127.0.0.1


sudo cp /var/www/vbox/vboxinit /etc/init.d/vboxinit
sudo update-rc.d vboxinit defaults


sudo systemctl enable vboxweb-service
sudo systemctl start vboxweb-service


Now, you can browse to http://[your-server-ip]/index.html, e.g. http://192.168.1.120/index.html.

Log in with "admin' as username and 'admin" as password.

You can copy the iso files to /home/samiux/iso for example by scp command.

Make sure you have installed "Guest Additions" to the all virtual desktop guests. Meanwhile, you need Flash to run the guest VNC.



If you want to browse with http://[your-server-ip]/ only, you need to do the following :

sudo cp /var/www/vbox/index.html /var/www/vbox/index.php

Troubleshooting

For phpvirtualbox login error when php7.0 is updated :

sudo /etc/init.d/php7.0-fpm restart

For phpvirtualbox guest vm showing "saved" or "poweroff" :

sudo systemctl restart vboxweb-service

Before upgrading VirtualBox, make sure all your virtual machines (guests) have been shut down. Then, stop the VirtualBox :

sudo systemctl stop vboxdrv
sudo systemctl stop vboxweb-service


If the Linux kernel is updated but the Virtualbox kernel module was not compiled by DRM properly, you need to run :

sudo /sbin/rcvboxdrv setup

If you encountered "Uninstalling old VirtualBox DKMS kernel modulesError! Could not locate dkms.conf file." when upgrading, you need to delete the source file of previous version :

sudo rm -rf /var/lib/dkms/vboxhost/[previous version]

e.g. /var/ib/dms/vboxhost/5.0.28

dkms status

After that, run the following commands or reboot the box.

sudo systemctl start vboxdrv
sudo systemctl start vboxweb-service


Then, start all virtual machines in web interface.


That's all! See you.

Friday, August 05, 2016

HOWTO : Cooler CPU on Kali Linux 2016.1

In general speaking, more powerful CPU generates more heat. However, cooler CPU may provide better performance in some situations. The following guide is for Kali Linux 2016.1 or Debian Linux.

Step 1 :

apt-get install linux-cpupower cpufrequtils thermald

Step 2 :

cpupower frequency-set -g powersave

Step 3 :

nano /etc/rc.local

Place the following line right before "exit 0".

cpupower frequency-set -g powersave

Remarks :

(1) To check the result :

watch -n 1 -d sensors

(2) To reset to "performance" or "ondemand", you just replace "powersave" to "performance" or "ondemand".

That's all! See you.


Wednesday, July 20, 2016

HOWTO : Cooler CPU under Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

The faster the speed of CPU, the more heat it generates. If your computer (desktop, laptop or server) encounters CPU overheating, you need to slow the CPU speed down in order to keep the CPU more cooler. The more cooler CPU, the better performance for some situations.

Step 1 :

sudo apt-get install linux-tools-common linux-tools-generic cpufrequtils thermald

Step 2 :

Insert the following line to "/etc/rc.local" and before "exit 0" :

sudo cpupower frequency-set -g powersave

Step 3 :

sudo sed -i 's/^GOVERNOR=.*/GOVERNOR="powersave"/' /etc/init.d/cpufrequtils

Step 4 :

Reboot your box

Remark :

To rollback, just replace "powersave" to "ondemand" or "performance".

That's all! See you.


Monday, June 06, 2016

HOWTO : Downgrade from PHP7.0 to PHP5.6 on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

When you upgrade to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS from Ubuntu 14.05 LTS, PHP5.6 will not be uninstalled or deleted. However, if you deleted yourself and your web application does not compatible to PHP7.0, you need a way to downgrade it back to PHP5.6. Here is the way but some settings will be similar to PHP7.0 for newly installed PHP5.6. Here you are :

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install php5.6-cgi php5.6 php5.6-cli php5.6-mysql php5.6-curl php5.6-gd php5.6-intl php-imagick php5.6-imap php5.6-mcrypt php-memcache php5.6-pspell php5.6-recode php5.6-sqlite3 php5.6-tidy php5.6-xmlrpc php5.6-xsl php-xcache php5.6-fpm

That's all! See you.


Thursday, June 02, 2016

HOWTO : OwnCloud 9.0.2 and Hiawatha 10.2 on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Step 1 - Update Ubuntu :

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
sudo apt-get autoclean
sudo apt-get --purge autoremove


Step 2 - Hiawatha Installation :

sudo apt-get install libc6-dev libssl-dev dpkg-dev debhelper fakeroot libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev

wget https://cmake.org/files/v3.5/cmake-3.5.2.tar.gz
tar -xvzf cmake-3.5.2.tar.gz
cd cmake-3.5.2
./configure
make
sudo make install


wget http://www.hiawatha-webserver.org/files/hiawatha-10.2.tar.gz
tar -xzvf hiawatha-10.2.tar.gz
cd hiawatha-10.2/extra
./make_debian_package
cd ..
sudo dpkg -i hiawatha_10.2_amd64.deb


sudo mkdir /etc/hiawatha/enable-sites

sudo nano /etc/hiawatha/hiawatha.conf

Add "SocketSendTimeout" just before "Binding Setting" :

SocketSendTimeout = 30

Add "MaxRequestSize" to "Binding Settings" :

# BINDING SETTINGS
# A binding is where a client can connect to.
#
Binding {
    Port = 80
    # MaxRequestSize is 100GB
    MaxRequestSize = 104857600
    MaxUploadSize = 2047
    TimeForRequest = 5,50
    MaxKeepAlive = 14400
}


Append the following line at the end of the file :

Include /etc/hiawatha/enable-sites/

Create "owncloud" file at /etc/hiawatha/enable-sites :

sudo nano /etc/hiawatha/enable-sites/owncloud

VirtualHost {
    Hostname = [your domain or IP address here]
    WebsiteRoot = /var/www/owncloud
    StartFile = index.php
    AccessLogfile = /var/log/hiawatha/owncloud-access.log
    ErrorLogfile = /var/log/hiawatha/owncloud-error.log
    TimeForCGI = 14400
    WebDAVapp = yes
    UseFastCGI = PHP70
    UseToolkit = denyData
    EnablePathInfo = yes
}

UrlToolkit {
    ToolkitID = denyData
    Match ^/data DenyAccess
}

FastCGIserver {
    FastCGIid = PHP70
    ConnectTo = /var/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock
    Extension = php
    SessionTimeout = 14400
}


sudo nano /etc/php/7.0/fpm/php-fpm.conf

Append the following lines at the end of the file :

; for OwnCloud
env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
env[TMP] = /tmp
env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
env[TEMP] = /tmp

[www]
pm.max_children=1000
pm.start_servers=50
pm.min_spare_servers=25
pm.max_spare_servers=75


Step 3 - MySQL Setting :

sudo mysql -u root -p

create database owncloud;
GRANT ALL ON owncloud.* TO owncloud@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY '[your password here]';
flush privileges;
quit


Step 4 - OwnCloud Installation :

wget -nv https://download.owncloud.org/download/repositories/stable/Ubuntu_16.04/Release.key -O Release.key
sudo apt-key add - < Release.key

rm Release.key

sudo sh -c "echo 'deb http://download.owncloud.org/download/repositories/stable/Ubuntu_16.04/ /' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/owncloud.list"
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install owncloud-files


sudo apt-get install exim4 exim4-base exim4-config exim4-daemon-light libapr1 libaprutil1 libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3 libaprutil1-ldap liblua5.1-0 s-nail php-common php7.0-cli php7.0-common php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-imap php7.0-intl php7.0-json php7.0-mbstring php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-mysql php7.0-readline php7.0-xml php7.0-zip php7.0-pgsql php7.0-sqlite3 php7.0-fpm php-apcu mysql-server mysql-client php7.0-cgi

sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/.user.ini

The content of the file may looking like this one :

upload_max_filesize=100G
post_max_size=100G
memory_limit=12G
mbstring.func_overload=0
always_populate_raw_post_data=-1
default_charset='UTF-8'
output_buffering=0
max_input_time=3600
max_execution_time=3600
upload_tmp_dir='/tmp/'
max_file_upload=5000


sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/config/config.php

Insert the following line into the end of the block of the code :

'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\APCu',

You may need to edit the following file at client sync program when necessary :

sudo nano /etc/ownCloud/sync-exclude.lst

To restart OwnCloud and Hiawatha services :

sudo /etc/init.d/php7.0-fpm restart
sudo /etc/init.d/hiawatha restart


Remarks :

If you want to have https connection, you need to generate the private SSL certificate or purchase one. You can also use Let's Encrypt when necessary. If so, the "binding settings" at Hiawatha should be "Port 443".

That's all! See you.

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

HOWTO : edb-debugger on Ubuntu 16.04

edb is a cross platform x86/x86-64 debugger. It was inspired by Ollydbg, but aims to function on x86 and x86-64 as well as multiple OS's. Linux is the only officially supported platform at the moment, but FreeBSD, OpenBSD, OSX and Windows ports are underway with varying degrees of functionality.


Install

sudo apt-get install git build-essential libboost1.58-all-dev qt5-default libqt5xmlpatterns5-dev

cd ~
mkdir arsenal
cd arsenal
git clone --recursive https://github.com/eteran/edb-debugger.git
cd edb-debugger
./travis_install_capstone.sh
qmake
make
sudo make install
cd ~
sudo edb



Update/Upgrade

cd ~/arsenal
rm -R edb-debugger


Repeat the Install procedure as previous mentioned.


Reference

Wiki


That's all! See you.


Wednesday, April 20, 2016

[RESEARCH] Banks In Hong Kong Running With What Services

After the research on SSL certificate grading on banks in Hong Kong, I am going to do another research on banks in Hong Kong to see what services they are running with, such as web server or protection. I am based on the List of banks in Hong Kong for the test. The standard site URL and personal online banking URL have been tested for the purpose. The web application vulnerability testing is not in the scope. The test is carried out on April 20, 2016.

DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港) and Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) 渣打銀行 are running with Akamai which provides DDoS/DoS protection to their clients. Meanwhile, Akamai also provides Web Application Firewall (WAF) to their clients. WAF can protect the web applications from being attacked by SQLi, XSS, CSRF and etc, even the web applications have these kind of vulnerabilities. I will not discuss about the WAF bypass here. Anyway, WAF can do the job well in general speaking.

Public Bank (Hong Kong) 大眾銀行(香港) and Chong Hing Bank 創興銀行 are running with G2 Web Services which is also considered to provide secure services.

It seems that almost all the bank websites in Hong Kong are protected by firewall or/and WAF as I cannot fetch any information from some of the sites during the test. It does not mean that the sites that I can fetch information are not protected by firewall or/and WAF.

In conclusion, I am sure that DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港) and Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) 渣打銀行 cannot be DDoS/DoS.

With reference to my previous research on SSL certificate, DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港) is the most secure bank in Hong Kong at the time of this writing. Their IT department is doing a great job on security. If their IT department can implement HPKP on the SSL certificate, it will be very great. Anyway, congratulations!

REFERENCE

The Personal Online Banking URL :

Bank of China (Hong Kong) 中國銀行(香港)
- Personal Customers - https://its.bochk.com/login/ibs_lgn_index_e.jsp
- System Details - Powered by: Servlet/3.0

Dah Sing Bank 大新銀行
- ebanking Personal - https://www.dahsing.com/eBank/jsp/login/ebank_id_login_frm.jsp
- System Details - Running on: Microsoft-IIS/7.5 and Powered by: ASP.NET

DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港)
- iBanking - https://internet-banking.hk.dbs.com/IB/Welcome
- System Details - Running on: AkamaiGHost

Public Bank (Hong Kong) 大眾銀行(香港)
- Net Banking - https://ebank.publicbank.com.hk/index0028.html
- System Details - Running on: G2

Shanghai Commercial Bank 上海商業銀行
- Personal Internet Banking - https://www.shacombank.com.hk/ibanking/servlet/com.ibm.dse.cs.servlet.CSEstablishSessionServlet/customer/en_US
- System Details - Running on: IBM_HTTP_Server

Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) 渣打銀行
- Online Banking - https://ibank.standardchartered.com.hk/nfs/login.htm?lang=en_US
- System Details - Running on: AkamaiGHost

Wing Lung Bank 永隆銀行
- Personal Net Banking - https://www.winglungbank.com/EnNbMainR.html
- System Details - Running on: IBM_HTTP_Server

* The banks that not in the list are not getting any information during the test.


The standard site URL :

China CITIC Bank International 中信銀行國際
- http://www.cncbinternational.com/home/en/index.jsp
- System Details - Powered by: Servlet/2.5

Chong Hing Bank 創興銀行
- http://www.chbank.com/en/index.shtml
- System Details - Running on: G2

Dah Sing Bank 大新銀行
- http://www.dahsing.com/en/html/index.html
- System Details - Running on: Microsoft-IIS/7.5 and Powered by: ASP.NET

DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港)
- https://www.dbs.com.hk/index/default.page
- System Details - Running on: AkamaiGHost

Fubon Bank (Hong Kong) 富邦銀行(香港)
- http://www.fubonbank.com.hk/web/html/index_e.html
- System Details - Powered by: Servlet/3.0

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Asia) 工銀亞洲
- http://www.icbcasia.com/ICBC/%E6%B5%B7%E5%A4%96%E5%88%86%E8%A1%8C/%E5%B7%A5%E9%93%B6%E4%BA%9A%E6%B4%B2/EN/
- System Details - Running on: Microsoft-IIS/7.5 and Powered by: ASP.NET

Public Bank (Hong Kong) 大眾銀行(香港)
- http://www.publicbank.com.hk/en/home
- System Details - Running on: G2

Shanghai Commercial Bank 上海商業銀行
- http://www.shacombank.com.hk/eng/personal/index.jsp
- System Details - Running on: IBM_HTTP_Server

Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) 渣打銀行
- https://www.sc.com/hk/
- System Details - Running on: AkamaiGHost

Wing Lung Bank 永隆銀行
- http://www.winglungbank.com/wlb_corporate/en/index.html
- System Details - Running on: IBM_HTTP_Server

* The banks that not in the list are not getting any information during the test.

That's all! See you.


Tuesday, April 19, 2016

[RESEARCH] SSL Certificate Grading of Banks in Hong Kong

In order to understand the information security condition in Hong Kong, I select website of banks in Hong Kong for SSL certificate checking. The check is aimed for testing the strength of the SSL certificate, Man-In-The-Middle attack prevention and vulnerability. The web application vulnerability and corporation online banking are not in the testing scope. However, most SSL certificates may be shared with sub-domains.

The check are based on "List of Banks In Hong Kong". I use Qualys SSL Labs online testing tool for the check.

The result of the check (the check is carried out on April 19, 2016) is rated in SSL Grade Ranking :

Grade A
DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港)

Grade A-
(1) Bank of China (Hong Kong) 中國銀行(香港)
(2) Bank of East Asia 東亞銀行
(3) China Construction Bank (Asia) 中國建設銀行(亞洲)
(4) Chong Hing Bank 創興銀行
(5) Citibank (Hong Kong) 花旗銀行
(6) Dah Sing Bank 大新銀行
(7) Fubon Bank (Hong Kong) 富邦銀行(香港)
(8) OCBC Wing Hang Bank 華僑永亨銀行
(9) Public Bank (Hong Kong) 大眾銀行(香港)
(10) Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) 渣打銀行

Grade C
(1) Hang Seng Bank 恒生銀行
(2) Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 滙豐銀行
(3) Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Asia) 工銀亞洲
(4) Shanghai Commercial Bank 上海商業銀行
(5) Wing Lung Bank 永隆銀行

Grade F
China CITIC Bank International 中信銀行國際

The following three banks are implemented HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security) to force the users' browser to use HTTPS connection. This has some degree of Man-In-The-Middle attack (MITM) protection. However, the HPKP (HTTP Public Key Pinning) is not implemented. Therefore, it has a risk of being attacked by MITM attack. Meanwhile, China CITIC Bank International 中信銀行國際 website has POODLE vulnerability for the SSL protocol that makes her grading down to F.

(1) China CITIC Bank International 中信銀行國際
(2) Chong Hing Bank 創興銀行
(3) Fubon Bank (Hong Kong) 富邦銀行(香港)

Even the highest ranking DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港) do not implement HPKP (HTTP Public Key Pinning), she has a risk to face Man-In-The-Middle attack even she used HSTS. Attackers can use fake SSL certificate to bypass HSTS protection when HPKP is not in force.

It is very interesting that the largest bank in Hong Kong (Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 滙豐銀行) only bearing a Grade C rank. I wonder why no website of banks in Hong Kong bearing a Grade A+ SSL certificate even my personal site is grading A+.

[Edit after several hours of the post :
I think the IT department of the banks may misunderstand or may be not fully understood the purpose of SSL certificate for a website. In addition, they may even do not know the limitation of HSTS that can be bypassed by the attackers. In my opinion, the best practice of SSL certificate implementation is to adopt the HPKP to reduce the MITM attacks risk at the moment.

The low grading of the rank is not the excuse of backward compatible to old browsers. To compatible to old or vulnerable browsers will void the security of the website for sure. Some low grading website of the banks even compatible to insecure protocol (RC4 {please refer to the bottom of this article for details}) which will place a trap to their clients.]

In conclusion, all website of banks in Hong Kong are facing a risk of being attacked by Man-In-The-Middle attack. As reference to this result, it is predicted that most websites in Hong Kong are not good at SSL Grading.

REFERENCE

I only check the licensed banks incorporated in Hong Kong. The following is the summary of the checking :

Bank of China (Hong Kong) 中國銀行(香港)
- Personal Customers - https://its.bochk.com/login/ibs_lgn_index_e.jsp
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=its.bochk.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Bank of East Asia 東亞銀行
- Cyberbanking - https://mobile.hkbea-cyberbanking.com/servlet/FRLogon?Lang=Eng
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=mobile.hkbea-cyberbanking.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

China CITIC Bank International 中信銀行國際
- Personal - https://ibanking.cncbinternational.com/CKWPortal/appmanager/Portal/CKWPerson?isPPB=0&displayLang=en_US
- Overall Rating - F (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=ibanking.cncbinternational.com)
- Vulnerable to POODLE (TLS) and HPKP is not in force. But HSTS is in force.

China Construction Bank (Asia) 中國建設銀行(亞洲)
- Personal Banking - https://online.asia.ccb.com/PersonalHKWeb/signin/SigninController.jpf
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=online.asia.ccb.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Chong Hing Bank 創興銀行
- i-Banking - https://www.ibanking.chbank.com/index0041.html
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.ibanking.chbank.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found and HSTS is in force. But HPKP is not in force.

Citibank (Hong Kong) 花旗銀行
- Online - https://www.citibank.com.hk/HKGCB/JSO/signon/DisplayUsernameSignon.do?locale=en_HK
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.citibank.com.hk)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Dah Sing Bank 大新銀行
- ebanking Personal - https://www.dahsing.com/eBank/jsp/login/ebank_id_login_frm.jsp
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.dahsing.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

DBS Bank (Hong Kong) 星展銀行(香港)
- iBanking - https://internet-banking.hk.dbs.com/IB/Welcome
- Overall Rating - A (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=internet-banking.hk.dbs.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Fubon Bank (Hong Kong) 富邦銀行(香港)
- e-banking - https://www.ebank.fubonbank.com.hk/index0128J.html
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.ebank.fubonbank.com.hk)
- No protocol vulnerability found and HSTS is in force. But HPKP is not in force.

Hang Seng Bank 恒生銀行
- Personal e-Banking - https://e-banking1.hangseng.com/1/2/!ut/p/c5/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3gDd-NQv1BDg2AXA1-PEE9zH2cTAwgAykcC5Q3CfCydDEy9LAzMDL39vNzMDGDyROh2dnf0MDH3AfLDPF0NPE2cTAxMfd0MDTyNCej288jPTdUvyA2NKHdUVAQA-SNG7A!!/dl3/d3/L2dJQSEvUUt3QS9ZQnZ3LzZfMEczVU5VMTBTRDBNSFRJN01DNDAwMDAwMDA!/
- Overall Rating - C (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=e-banking1.hangseng.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but insecure RC4 protocol is in force. HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 滙豐銀行
- Personal Internet Banking - https://www.ebanking.hsbc.com.hk/1/2/logon?LANGTAG=en&COUNTRYTAG=US
- Overall Rating - C (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.ebanking.hsbc.com.hk)
- No protocol vulnerability found but insecure RC4 protocol is in force. HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Asia) 工銀亞洲
- Personal/Private Banking - https://myebankasia.icbc.com.cn/icbc/perbank/index.jsp?areaCode=0110&dse_locale=en-US
- Overall Rating - C (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=myebankasia.icbc.com.cn)
- No protocol vulnerability found but insecure RC4 protocol is in force. HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

OCBC Wing Hang Bank 華僑永亨銀行
- Personal Customer - https://ebanking.ocbcwhhk.com/jsp/chs/personal/0830/errorInvalidDevice.jsp
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=ebanking.ocbcwhhk.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Public Bank (Hong Kong) 大眾銀行(香港)
- Net Banking - https://ebank.publicbank.com.hk/index0028.html
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=ebank.publicbank.com.hk)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Shanghai Commercial Bank 上海商業銀行
- Personal Internet Banking - https://www.shacombank.com.hk/ibanking/servlet/com.ibm.dse.cs.servlet.CSEstablishSessionServlet/customer/en_US
- Overall Rating - C (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.shacombank.com.hk)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.

Standard Chartered Bank (Hong Kong) 渣打銀行
- Online Banking - https://ibank.standardchartered.com.hk/nfs/login.htm?lang=en_US
- Overall Rating - A- (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=ibank.standardchartered.com.hk)
- No protocol vulnerability found and HSTS is in force. But HPKP is not in force.

Wing Lung Bank 永隆銀行
- Personal Net Banking - https://www.winglungbank.com/EnNbMainR.html
- Overall Rating - C (https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=www.winglungbank.com)
- No protocol vulnerability found but HSTS and HPKP are not in force.


About Insecure RC4
Imperva Security Response to OpenSSL and TLS/RC4 Vulnerabilities
Killing RC4 (softly)

See Also : [RESEARCH] Banks In Hong Kong Running With What Services

That's all! See you.